A large number of US federal agencies, universities, and private companies got also involved in the development during the 90's. The core components of GRASS versions 1.0 to 5.0 and the coordination of efforts towards GRASS GIS releases were led by the USA-CERL in Champaign, Illinois. USA-CERL completed its last release of GRASS as version 4.1 in 1992, and provided updates and patches to this release through 1995. They also wrote the core components of the GRASS 5.0 floating point version.
In 1997, and after two years of uncertainty, GRASS development was taken over by academia: Baylor University in Texas for a period, and then University of Hannover in Germany; led by Markus Neteler. The GRASS Development Team grew into a multi-national team consisting of developers at numerous locations who manages the source code, releases, and documentation ever since then.
In October 1999, GRASS GIS in its version 5.0 was released for the first time under GNU General Public License (GPL) and in December that year, the source code management moved to the first centralized source code repository (see change to CVS. Before that, mainly manual source code management was done.